No one is sure where making wine originated, but we believe it spring up in several places around the globe at the same time. (And, that it was probably earlier than 4,000 BC. Animals will search out fermented ponds and have a drink or three together.) Regardless of when winemaking began, the natural process of fermentation was the same throughout civilizations.
When did commercial winemaking begin in earnest? Probably in the 19th century. At that time, the same-sized standard bottles were produced, the glass was stronger, and bottle-makers learned how to make tighter stoppers for wine.
The final step in setting the stage for commercial winemaking was, believe it or not, Louis Pasteur. He researched fermentation in the 19th century in his quest to explore and kill bacteria. It was his work that made commercial wineries able to ramp up their production and give us the wonderful varieties of wine that hold their true flavors.
Thank you Louie!